The Basking Spot: Better than Basic – Betta Bowl Enrichment – June, 2013

by Jennifer Greene

Now, I know bettas aren’t really reptiles, but we carry them as well as tons of items for their care.  They’re a popular “desk pet”, and they are very low maintenance fish that many people find easy and rewarding to keep.  They come in a wide range of colors, and in recent years they also come with several color, pattern, and fin mutations for a kaleidoscope of beautiful iridescent colors you can keep in a little ½ gallon bowl on your desk.

Just because a betta fish can live in a small bowl does not mean they shouldn’t live a rewarding little fishy life, though.  I’ll be reviewing a few inexpensive items that you can add to your betta’s life to keep it entertained, exercised, and help extend its life for many years.  A well cared for betta can easily live over 10 years, and there’s no reason your betta shouldn’t live that long too!

Diet

Bettas very quickly learn the routine of begging for food, and can easily become overfed and even fat.  To maintain your betta on a diet to keep it slim and trim, try using a ZooMed BettaMatic  for the routine daily feedings.  This little automatic feeder distributes one pellet a day for your fish, which is enough food to maintain a creature that inhabits ½ gallon of water for its entire life.  You can add variety to the diet by offering treats in the form of Mysis, daphnia, or bloodworms, all of which are aquatic invertebrates that are small enough for your betta to eat.  ZooMed makes a serving size ideal for one betta with the Dial-A-Treat food container, and also comes with a neat little spoon feeding tool for you to offer your betta food with.  Keep that little tool, it comes in handy later!

Tank Décor

Give your little guy some privacy!  Add some betta-sized fake plants for them to hide behind, like bamboo leaves or papaya leaves.  Many keepers believe that bettas can live with live plants, and even eat bits of the roots or leaves, but this is not the case, and leaving your betta with just a live plant to eat will result in the fish going very, very hungry.  Use fake plants that you can easily clean, and keep live plants for your vivariums or larger aquariums – a betta bowl just isn’t enough tank space to adequately keep plants and bettas happy in one container.

In addition to decorating your bowl, there are also these cute little suction cup leaves  you can add to your tank.  Why give your betta one little leaf near the top of the bowl, you ask?

Because they like to sleep on them, of course!

In the wild, bettas will rest on foliage near the surface in order to easily take gulps of air, and when you give them a leaf to sleep on in their bowl, they’ll happily take advantage of it!

In addition, you can teach your betta to do amazing betta tricks using the leaf.  I personally have taught my bettas to jump onto their leaves to eat food (using that little red spoon that comes with the Dial-A-Treat mentioned earlier!), and so have other staff members.  With patience, you can teach your betta to be a miniature shamu too.  Start small by teaching your betta to go to the red spoon for food, and then you can easily teach the betta to follow the spoon to get a tasty treat reward.  Spend 5 minutes a day teaching your betta to tap its nose to the little red spoon to get fed, and you’d be amazed how quickly you can get your betta to follow that spoon anywhere in the bowl!

If you’re not that dedicated to training your betta, you can also provide exercise opportunities by placing a betta mirror in the bowl for no more than 5 minutes at a time.  When betta breeders were asked what products they’d like most for their bettas to live healthier, longer lives, they actually requested an item like the betta mirror to help provide them with exercise.  A fit betta is a happy betta!  Just be careful not to leave the mirror in the bowl for too long – your betta can get worn out and stressed from constantly attempting to fight the betta they see in the mirror.

Water Conditions

In order for your betta to maintain his best colors and thrive in your care, you’ll need to make sure he’s living in clean, warm water at all times.  I highly recommend changing out at least half the water in his bowl every few days if you do not have a filtration system, and you should always treat the water with a water conditioner to remove any chlorine or other chemicals.  In addition, as these are tropical fish, they thrive best in water temperatures between 78 and 82 degrees – much warmer than the average office, and most homes.  Heat up the water a few degrees with a tiny little betta-sized water heater to make sure your betta stays bright and active for you.

More Aesthetically Pleasing than a Plastic Bowl

Do you have a classy office or home, and a plastic betta bowl just isn’t your style?  Give your betta a miniature, betta sized aquarium – 2 gallon Fluval Spec aquariums filter the water, eliminating the need for constant water changes, and with the light, clean water, and extra swimming space, your betta will THRIVE!  Bettas in larger water areas, even up to 10 gallon aquariums, develop longer fins, brighter colors, and even grow larger.  Many keepers don’t realize bettas can live in slightly larger aquariums, and I successfully kept a betta and several neon tetra fish in the stylish Fluval Chi aquarium for several years.

As you can see, you can do so much more than just keep a betta in a sad, bare little plastic bowl on your desk.  Try enriching your fish’s life, and add just one or two of these neat and inexpensive items to your betta routine.  There is something extremely rewarding in seeing your betta go from a limp, listless fish in a cup to a robust, brightly colored little jewel in your aquarium.  Give it a shot!

Owning One of the World’s Deadliest – March 2014

By Noah Collins

Dart frogs have made their way into the herpetology field. Though some species are quite deadly in the wild, a simple change in diet stops the production of poison for captive specimens. In captivity, dart frogs are fed a diet that consists mainly of flightless fruit flies or crickets. Drosophila hydei and Drosphila melanogaster, the most common fruit fly species used used, as well as crickets are not rich in the alkaloids needed to produce the frog’s poison. In the wild, dart frogs feed on invertebrates from Central and South America where insects rich in theses alkaloids thrive. The frogs are able to synthesis these alkaloids from their prey in order to produce their toxins. As dart frogs secrete poison that predators must ingest, rather than actively injecting toxins into prey (the way venomous snakes do), they are considered poisonous rather than venomous. In fact, some dart frog species are considered the most poisonous animals on planet Earth. In order for a frog to harm another organism the toxin must enter the body through a cut or be ingested. Fortunately, captive dart frogs pose no risk of hurting humans.

Bumblebee Dart Frog – Dendrobates leucomelas

One of the most interesting species of poison dart frogs is the Golden dart frog (Phyllobates terribilis). This species of dart frog, when encountered in its natural habitat, is the most lethal. In the wild this species can create a poison called Batrachotoxin. Batrachotoxin is classified as a neurotoxin, and usually causes an organism to suffer from cardiac arrest. There is currently no cure for an individual who has had Batrachotoxin poisoning. This poison is so powerful that it is said to be much stronger than Morphine. The Phyllobates genus of poison dart frogs contain the only species of dart frogs that can create this poison. Due to the high toxicity, Amazonian natives use the frogs in the genus Phyllobates to hunt. The natives gently wipe their darts or arrows on the frogs back so that their prey will die when the darts or arrows stab into their bodies. This way the natives do not have to hit their targets with a lethal shot, but rather just pierce the skin so that the prey will succumb to the poison. The terms “Dart Frogs” and “Arrow Frogs” commonly referred to by hobbyists, derive from the way natives use them to hunt.  The term is generally applied to any of the small, brightly colored South American frogs, but only 3 of the most toxic species from the Phyllobates genus are actually used by Amazonians to poison the tips of their darts.

Some of the most common types of dart frogs in captivity are of the Dendrobates family. The Bumblebee dart frogs (Dendrobates Leucomelas) are one of the most abundant dart frog in captivity.  Bumblebee dart frogs produce a different kind of poison than the golden dart frogs do in the wild. Bumblebee dart frogs, as well as other Dendrobates species of dart frogs, produce Pumiliotoxin. Although this toxin is not as potent as Batrachotoxin, it still can be very dangerous. Even being hundreds of times less potent than Batrachotoxin, Pumiliotoxin causes paralysis, difficulty moving, and in severe cases death. This toxin causes irregular muscle contractions, putting the heart at risk.

Another species of dart frogs that is capable of producing Pumiliotoxin is the Dendrobates tinctorious, or the dyeing dart frog. One color variety is commonly mistaken for being a unique species – the blue azureus locale.  This frog is very unique in its display of vibrant blue colors. Each frog has a unique pattern of black spots on its back making it possible to identify between other frogs of the same type. This is similar the Bumblebee dart frogs because each Bumblebee dart frog has a unique banding that can be used to tell the frogs apart. These are frogs all have unique patters that distinguish them individually in a similar way that finger prints are used to distinguish human apart.  They also have different morphs of dart frogs in captivity. These morphs are caused through selective breeding. Breeders have created banded Bumblebee dart frogs where solid bands of black and yellow wrap the frog.

There are hundreds of types of poison dart frogs available to be kept as pets. Most species can live five to seven years in captivity. Because they have a decent life span in captivity, there is large number of offspring that can come from just a single pair. This is allowing them to become easily available and due to the sheer number available, new morphs are being created regularly in more species than just the Bumblebee dart frogs.

Since dart frogs cannot make poisons in captivity, they can make a great display pet for hobbyists because they are diurnal (awake during the day). Most dart frogs have vibrant colors used in the wild to show that they are dangerous and warn predators to stay away. Because of this, a dart frog’s security does not come from hiding like most animal species, but rather from being out in the open displaying warning colors. The dart frogs in captivity behave in the same ways they behave in the wild. Most dart frogs are not going to hide or sleep all day. This makes them a great “show” animal. Dendrobates auratus dart frogs are green and black, and their patterns often resemble a camo design. Again, each design is unique to each frog. They are one of the few dart frogs that are green in color. Although these frogs blend in to the green environment around them more so than species like the  Dendrobates tinctorious, they still stand out. Species like the Dendrobates auratus are a little shyer in captivity. Though they are out during the day, they are quicker to hide than other dart frogs if spooked. This type of shy behavior can be related to how potent the frog’s poison would be in the wild. Usually the most poisonous are brightly colored and the less poisonous are more likely to be subtly colored.  Although color can be used to describe how toxic the frogs can be, size does not relate to the toxicity of the animal.

There are species of dart frogs that stay very small like the blue jean (Dendrobates pumilio) dart frog. These frogs get no bigger than the average person’s thumbnail. This gives this group of frogs the widely used name of Thumbnail frogs. Most Thumbnail frogs are kept by experienced keepers because they can be less hardy than other species of dart frogs. Tinctorious species of dart frogs can get much bigger than thumbnail species. Some of these frogs get over two inches in length. Most Tinctorious species are territorial and will often bully other frogs of smaller size. Unlike the golden poison dart frogs who live in small groups, called an army, the Tinctorious species are more of loners in the wild. In captivity however, they can often be housed in pairs or trios. As long as the frogs are of similar size and have adequate room to roam around, they can do just fine together.  It is best to monitor your frogs closely when first introducing them, though, to ensure that there is no bullying between individuals.

Dart frogs are an animal that many scientists have taken an interest into studying. They are also making their way into the pet world and proving to be some of the most unique pets.  I highly suggest keeping one or more for yourself – there’s tons of species out there to try! 

Care and Reproduction of the Golfodulcean Arrow Frog – March 2014

By Anthony Neubauer

Introduction

The Golfodulcean Dart Frog is a classic to the dart frog hobby that comes from the dense rainforests of Costa Rica.  Adults grow to a decent size of 1”-1.5”, and are attractively colored. Their care is relatively easy provided a few essential steps are taken to ensure their survival. They tend to be more heard than seen, often fleeing when approached. However, their singing makes up for their lack of boldness. The call is a loud trill that can be heard from somewhat of a distance. It is by no means annoying, and adds to the “coolness” of this species. They also breed like rabbits, with my group producing clutches every 2 weeks. If you’re looking to getting into keeping and breeding dart frogs, you’ve found the ideal frog for you.

Poison

As the name suggests, wild Phyllobates are extremely toxic. Although vittatus are not as poisonous as their relatives such as P. terribilis, they still pack a deadly touch. Their toxin is a neurotoxic alkaloid that causes severe pain, mild to severe seizures, and sometimes even paralysis in extreme cases. In captivity, even wild caught specimens quickly lose their toxic nature. This is because their poisons are produced through their natural diet of poisonous ants, which is obviously not present in captive diets.

As with all dart frogs, poison is of no concern unless dealing with freshly wild caught specimens.

Choosing an enclosure

When it comes to choosing a tank for any dart frog, one must consider their need for a high humidity level. The terrariums manufactured by Exo Terra are a favorite among many dart frog enthusiasts, including myself. The front access doors making the daily spraying, checking for eggs or tadpoles, and other maintenance a breeze. I currently house my group of 5 in an Exo Terra that measures 36” x 18” x 24”. This is definitely larger than necessary, however they use every inch of floor space, and males can often be seen calling from the top of the cage. A good rule of thumb is to start with around 10 gallons or equivalent space for a pair, and add 5-10 gallons per additional frog. This species does fine in groups, although females will eat each others eggs if they cannot lay them apart from each other

The author’s vitattus enclosure.

Creating a “slice of rainforest”

I have been housing my group of 5, consisting of 3 males and 2 females, in a planted vivarium with great success.  The idea is to recreate a slice of the rainforest where these frogs come from. Bromeliads are a great way to brighten up the cage, as well as provide water and egg laying/ tadpole rearing sites. Ferns, philodendrons, and begonias are also great choices that will thrive in a dart frog tank. You want to provide a lot of places and vegetation for your frogs to hide in to feel secure. Oak and Magnolia tree leaf litter is also a good way to add attractive ground cover. Vittatus tend to live close to rivers and streams, so adding a water feature would not be a bad idea.  However, I have not found it necessary for my own tank, so it is up to you which route you’d like to take. You will want to spray the cage every day, or however often it takes to make the humidity level peak at 80%, and then dissipate to around 60% throughout the day. A fogger such as Zoo Med’s Reptifogger will also aid in upping humidity, especially during the winter when so many of us are drying the air with heaters.

Feeding

I feed my adult frogs small to medium crickets every other day to every three days when they are being put through a dry spell. When I start spraying more frequently again, they are fed every day, since they lay their eggs at this time and need the extra nutrients. Younger frogs are fed fruit flies daily until they can handle the small crickets. I supplement their diet by dusting insects twice a month with a Vitamin A supplement produced by Repashy. I have had highest fertility and healthy tadpoles with this schedule. One of my favorite attributes of these frogs is their ability to eat small to medium crickets with no problem.

Breeding

If you are caring for your frogs correctly and have males and females, you will get eggs without question. I have learned to control when my frogs lay eggs to an extent, by increasing feeding and spraying. I cycle my group with 1-2 weeks of heavy spraying, during which they are fed daily, followed by 2 weeks of light spraying and less frequent feeding. During the “wet spell”, males are heard calling all day, but more frequently when the lights go out around 9-10. They lay eggs at this time. Calling is at a minimal when going through a “drought”. Coconut hides on top of 4.5” deli cup lids are placed throughout the floor of the tank, and used as egg laying sites. I check these daily during the wet spell, and pull eggs a couple days after discovering them to allow time for males to fertilize them. This is where having a male heavy group comes into play, as the more males you have, the greater chance of one finding the eggs and fertilizing them.

Egg and Tadpole Care

After pulling the eggs, I clean any dirt and feces off the lid, and place it into a larger deli cup with moist paper towels.I store the eggs on a shelf in my open closet, with low ambient light. The temperature stays around 70-73 degrees Fahrenheit. I have noticed that at these lower temperatures, the eggs and tadpoles take longer to morph out, but result in larger and healthier babies. You can see the tadpoles develop through the clear eggs, and eventually break out of the egg. Once they emerge, I put them individually in a 32 ounce tall deli cup filled half way with half Reverse Osmosis water (which locals can purchase at any of our retail stores!), and half “tadpole tea” which I make by boiling magnolia leaves in water until the water turns brown from the tanins. I also add a magnolia leaf placed diagonally out of the water for a resting place, as well as extra food for the tadpoles. I feed my tadpoles every 3-4 days with HBH tadpole pellets. Once they have all of their legs and half adult colors, I move them into a 6.75” diameter delicupplaced at a 30 degree angle with moss at the top and a little of the tadpoles water and the leaf in the bottom. At this time, the tadpole looks like a baby frog with a tail. They stop eating, and begin gaining nutrients exclusively from absorbing their tail. Usually within a week, they fully absorb their tail, and will be hopping around the Sphagnum moss. I then remove them and place them into a 9.75” diameter deli cup with moss as a substrate, and a pothos plant clipping and leaf litter. They begin eating melanogaster fruit flies in 4-7 days, and then can be kept as an adult.

One of the author’s tadpoles growing!

In Conclusion

Phyllobates vittatus is a great introduction into dart frog keeping. Their impressive colors and calls makes them fun to keep. They are forgiving for a dart frog, so they’re perfect for someone who is wanting to dive into dart frogs, but is unsure where to start. They also produce clutches every few weeks, so if you fail at keeping the eggs or tadpoles alive, you will have many chances to learn and get it right.  Unfortunately these frogs are extremely underrated. Not a ton of people are breeding them because they are not as bold as other members in their genus. However, they can be found at affordable prices, especially when available on our website.  Pick up a group and give them a try! You won’t be disappointed.

Caring For The Vietnamese Centipede – January 2014

By Anthony Neubauer

The Vietnamese Centipede is a large invertebrate found throughout the jungles and tropics of Asia, especially southeast Asia where they are mostly imported from. There are also populations in Hawaii, and likely in other tropical climates throughout the world. Reaching lengths up to 12”,they are an active creature, scurrying through the jungle floor’s leaf litter as they search for their next meal. In captivity, they often burrow, but with a thought out setup,  they can be seen cruising around through vegetation and rearranging their enclosure. The Vietnamese Centipede is a great animal for the careful hobbyist.

Please Note: Centipedes in general are not for the inexperienced.  Not only do they possess powerful paralyzing venom, they are extremely prone to biting, and are one of the fastest, most unpredictable bugs you can deal with. I strongly recommend a long pair of hemostats, as they easily climb up tongs with astonishing speed. Although you can find pictures of it on the internet, handling should in no way be attempted. Centipedes tend to “test bite” everything they walk on, so an envenomation is almost inevitable. Please be responsible.

You don’t want to be on the receiving end of a bite from those chompers!

Selecting an Enclosure

Centipedes are escape artists, so if not housed in a 100% secure enclosure, they will get out at some point. I will only house them in glass tanks that have a sliding top lid with a pin to prevent it from opening. I prefer the sides to be taller than the centipede is long to create some space between my hand. It should also be tall enough to allow a few inches of substrate for burrowing, as well as a drainage layer if you plan to create a living vivarium, which is the best way to go. Anything from 5-10 gallons is enough space for even the largest specimen. I have heard of people keeping them in plastic enclosures such as those sold as “Kritter Keeper”, however, I would not trust all of the holes and gaps. The rule is: If the centipede can squeeze it’s head through, it can get it’s entire body through. Trust me from experience, you do not want one of these exploring the room you sleep in!

Water and Humidity

Perhaps the number one reason centipedes do not survive in captivity is hydration. Even so called “desert” centipedes do not live completely dry. In fact, when it is dry, they are no where to be found on the surface because they burrow down to the more humid layers of dirt. Vietnamese Centipedes come from dense, humid jungles, so they need to be kept as such. There are three steps to properly hydrating them. The first is always offering a water bowl full of water. Second, use a substrate that holds moisture well and will not mold. Third is regularly spraying down the enclosure. This is where a vivarium becomes most practical as you are watering the plants regularly anyway. Follow these three steps, and your centipede will thrive.

Temperature

Scolopendra subspinipes can be kept anywhere from room temp of 73*F, all the way up to 80*F. Keep in mind that at the higher end, they will act more natural, and be much quicker and aggressive. Many keepers will remove the heat source ahead of time if going into the enclosure is needed as this lets them cool down a bit and they tend to move a little slower. Still, do not let your guard down. Humidity is also harder to maintain at 80*F, so that should be accounted for.

Feeding

Feeding is an easy thing with these guys, as they are not picky. Any live vertebrate or invertebrate will be accepted. Crickets, Cockroaches, and mealworms and superworms are commonly available food items, and are the healthiest for the animal. Pinkies and feeder lizards can be offered occasionally, but they are not designed to digest vertebrates as much, so they tend to make them obese and have a  shorter life span. Large Cockroaches are what makes up a majority of their diet in the wild, so are probably the most beneficial and nutritious. Keep in mind that they are messy eaters, tearing their food up and often leaving a pile of bits and pieces of their meal. This should be removed as soon as possible due to the rapid growth of mold that is sure to happen due to the high humidity they are kept in.

Inside the Tank

When setting up a centipede enclosure, a few things should be taken into consideration. First, a thick layer of substrate should be provided to allow burrowing. Burrowing leads to a sense of security, which in turn leads to a comfortable centipede that will not be afraid to explore it’s enclosure. The enclosure should be made dense with either live or fake plants. Pothos plants make great live terrarium plants, as they have low light requirements, love a humid environment, and will vine out and climb all surfaces of the tank if allowed. They will also produce heavy ground cover if nothing is provided for them to climb up. This is perfect for your centipede. Live sheet moss is another great way to add humidity as well as a special aesthetic appeal to the tank. Stacks of broken cork bark also allows multiple hiding places, while looking good at the sametime. Cork bark will not mold, so is perfect for the centipede’s environment. For substrate, I recommend Cypress, Eco Earth, or my personal favorite, Tree Fern made by Exo Terra. The latter two will hold up better in a naturalistic vivarium a lot better, but if going for a simple and clean enclosure, Cypress will produced great results if changed once a month.

A Note on Venom:

Although there are no reliable reports of death by Scolopendra subspinipes, bite victims describe the experience as the most pain they have ever felt, with reactions ranging from severe pain with swelling, to slight necrosis of the tissue, accompanied with nausea, and unbearable pain. If bitten, a hospital trip should be arranged immediately to be on the safer side. Different subspecies have different levels of venom, but all should be treated with the same care and respect that a potentially dangerous animal demands. Think twice before purchasing a centipede if you share the house with children. Bottom line: Be responsible!

Differences among subspecies:

Scolopendra subspinipes subspinipes is the most commonly seen subspecies in the US. They are large, with 8-9” being average, and up to a foot not being unheard of. Colors range from the standard yellow leg, to cherry leg and tiger leg populations. Scolopendra subspinipes “de haani”is an extremely colorful subspecies, with varying degrees of deep red legs and body. S. subspinipes mutilans is a smaller subspecies,attaining sizes of around 5-6”. Their headplate, as well as their last body segment and terminal legs are a vivid red, with a black body and yellow legs. They are among the smallest of the species, and interestingly enough, are communal. I successfully kept 3 adults together for over a year. This is the only subspecies that is recommended to be housed together.

The Vietnamese centipede is a truly impressive invertebrate. When setup correctly, they can be a unique display animal that is sure to captivate its observers. As long as they are given their space, and measures are taken to prevent an escape, they make a very cool pet. Keep them hydrated and humid, and you’re sure to have your centipede for a very long time. The centipede is gaining popularity as more and more people realize the interesting behaviors and colors that come along with these prehistoric bugs.

Caring for Collared Lizards – October 2013

By Anthony Neubauer

Introduction

The Eastern Collared Lizard, Crotaphytus collaris, is a hardy, medium sized lizard native to the deserts of the Southern United States. They are common in Arizona and Texas, but also range into neighboring states. They are a very active species that spend much of their day running, jumping, and digging throughout the terrarium. Captive bred specimens can be very tame and relaxed, and make much better captives than wild caught specimens. If you’re looking for something different to put in a desert setup that will tolerate occasional handling and make for an entertaining captive, look no further. Collared lizards are for you.

Housing

Collared Lizards are extremely active. Keep this in mind when selecting an enclosure. A tank measuring 12″ long x 12″ deep x 30″ wide can house up to 3 babies for the first 6-8 months of life, and could house a single baby for up to a year.

Once they reach adulthood at around a year to a year and a half, it’s time to upgrade to a minimum of a 16″ x 16″ x 36″ sized enclosure.

This allows for adequate space to run around, as well as some height for offering a deep layer of substrate to burrow in and sticks and rocks to climb on.

Collared Lizards will readily use any space given, so if more space can be provided, your lizards will appreciate it. Glass tanks manufactured by Creative Habitat and Exo Terra are preferable, as they provide adequate light and ventilation for this desert reptile.

Environment

When setting up an enclosure, the first decision you must make is to go naturalistic or simplistic. You could very easily throw in a dry bedding such as Sani-Chips, a couple rocks and or sticks, and a water bowl and your Collareds would survive just fine. However, many hobbyists take it a step further in creating a much more aesthetically pleasing setup, complete with sand, gravel, live or fake plants, and rocks and wood setup as natural as possible.

I highly recommend using a sand-like substrate that allows burrowing. When given the opportunity, Collared Lizards will create burrows and retreat to them at night for sleeping.

This keeps them occupied all day, and in the end leads to happier lizards. I prefer to use Excavator Clay by Zoo Med, topped with a thin layer of sand for added texture and looks.

When wet, Excavator Clay can be shaped and molded into any shape you can imagine. When dry, it becomes hardened enough to hold burrows, but still able to be dug into.

Succulents and some cacti can be used to add some color, as well as a few flat basking rocks and a piece of Manzanita or Grape Wood.

Water

These lizards hail from the harsh deserts of the United States, and so are adapted to a water preserving life style. I like to provide a shallow water bowl with clean water at all times, even though they rarely drink. I also very lightly spray the tank down once a week, mostly for the plants, although the lizards drink the droplets as well. Other than their weekly spray, they don’t need any added humidity.

Water

These lizards hail from the harsh deserts of the United States, and so are adapted to a water preserving life style. I like to provide a shallow water bowl with clean water at all times, even though they rarely drink. I also very lightly spray the tank down once a week, mostly for the plants, although the lizards drink the droplets as well. Other than their weekly spray, they don’t need any added humidity.

 

Heating and lighting

These guys like it HOT. The basking area should be 110-120 Degrees Fahrenheit during the day, with the ambient temperature ranging from room temp to 85 Degrees. I use and recommend a Halogen basking bulb, as they make it easy to achieve these hot temperatures, but in a small, concentrated area so the entire tank isn’t cooking. I position this light over a large flat rock, so the rock heats up providing belly heat similar to using a heat pad. They will move closer and further away from the hot spot to achieve their preferred temperature. At night time, your temperatures can drop pretty significantly, as long as it heats up during the day. Anything above 60 degrees is fine, although 65-70 Degrees is optimal. This is a truly diurnal species, so high intensity UVB lighting is absolutely necessary for them to thrive. The Zoo Med T5 High Output bulbs rated 10.0 is the way to go. I provide 12-14 hours of daylight, and 10-12 hours of darkness without the lights.

 

Feeding

Collared Lizards eat A LOT. This is especially true when growing, as they are using all nutrients towards their rapid growth. They should be fed daily for their first year, and then every other day once they’re close to adult size. They eat a variety of insects, and the more variety the better. I feed mine mainly appropriately sized crickets, with either Dubia roaches, wax worms and moths, and mealworms being offered with every other cricket feeding. Flying insects are cherished, and they can easily jump up and chase them down to get them. Adults can eat the occasional pinky mouse, and will even eat feeder lizards! It is to be noted that Collared Lizards have extremely large heads and throats in comparison to their size, so taking larger food items is no problem. They have a ravenous appetite, and the more you feed youngsters the better they’ll do. I have also witnessed mine eating the leaves of certain succulents, so it may be worth offering yours leafy greens or even fruit from time to time.  While some will readily consume plant matter, not all do, so don’t worry if yours do not eat vegetation.

Vitamins

On top of a varied diet, I still use a few dietary supplements. Once a week I dust their crickets with RepCal Calcium with D3 mixed 50/50 with Repashy SuperPig pigment enhancer. I also use RepCal multivitamin once a month, also mixed with SuperPig. This is essential in making your Collared Lizards as bright and healthy as possible.

Adult Size and Sexing

Collared Lizards are sexually dimorphic, meaning you can tell them apart just by looking at them. Males will have more blue and green on their body, and females will have more tan and red. Males also get a little larger, have bulkier heads, and an overall heftier build. Adult size on these guys is around 12-14 inches, with males being toward the larger end, and females being on the smaller end.

They can reach adult size in a year to a year and a half with proper feeding, food, and nutrition as well as heat.

Conclusion

The Eastern Collared Lizard is a fun one to keep. They are always doing something, and are very inquisitive. They are quick, but can be tamed down with frequent calm, confident handling. Care for them is pretty straight forward, and they have few to no health issues as long as their heat and feeding requirements are provided. Overall a fascinating desert captive that is sure to become a favorite in any hobbyist’s collection.

Care for Mexican Fire Leg Tarantulas – September 2013

By Anthony Neubauer

Introduction

The group of tarantulas that make up the genus Brachypelma are ideal spiders for any hobbyist. Their generally calm demeanor, decent yet manageable size(5-6 inches), and stunning colors make them perfect for a display animal. Some tolerate handling more than others, but as with any spider, care should be taken when handling. My personal favorite, the Mexican Fire leg, is better kept for display. They are one of the most colorful members of the genus, and tend to stay out in the open for viewing.

When selecting a first tarantula, most people are instructed to start with “New World” species, that is, species that come from North or South America. New World species possess specialized hairs on the abdomen, called uriticating hairs, that are rubbed off as the first defense. These hairs, once airborne, cause itchiness and irritation. Some people are more sensitive to them than others, but they generally are of little worry. Because they possess these hairs, they are less inclined to bite, and possess less potent venom if they do. They also tend to be calmer and slower moving. This makes them more manageable for the beginner and intermediate hobbyist. The Brachypelma genus hails from Mexico and Central America, so fall into the New World category.

Selecting an Enclosure

When selecting an enclosure for a Fire Leg, one must keep in mind that they are a terrestrial species, so will spend their time on the ground. This is important, as housing them in too tall of cage can result in a fatal fall. Spiderlings are available as small as half an inch, and up until around two inches should be housed in a small, simple setup as locating their food and water will be tough in larger enclosures. I recommend an eight ounce deli cup up until two inches such asthis. Once they start gaining size, appropriately sized glass tanks or plastic enclosure can be used. For an adult Fire Leg, something with similar floor space to a 10 gallon tank is sufficient. Exo Terra Breeder Boxes and Flat Den Homes are an excellent way to save space, allowing for you to have more spiders!

Cage Décor and Substrate

For any tarantula to thrive, a hiding spot should be provided to allow the spider to feel secure and keep stress levels down. Hides can be anything from a coconut hide, to a piece of cork bark, to a stone cave or skull. Basically anything they can get under or in, and be mostly unseen. Commonly used substrates include Coconut Husk, Orchid Bark, and Cypress Mulch. A water bowl should also be offered for spiders around three inches and up. It should be shallow enough that there is no risk of drowning, and should be changed every couple of days to keep it clean. Spiderlings up until three inches should be sprayed once a week, and not given a water bowl, as this can cause drowning. They will drink the water droplets when they are sprayed. It is not recommended to use a sponge as a water source, as these quickly promote bacterial growth. Some keepers, particularly those interested in keeping Fire Legs for a display animal, choose to take the habitat to the next level and create a natural living vivarium, complete with live plants. This can be easily done with a little extra thought and consideration.  Keep in mind your tarantula’s needs when molting (higher humidity in particular), and you can recreate a desert- style vivarium with moist hiding areas.

Temperature and Humidity

Fire Legs come from the deserts and sub deserts of Mexico. However, no tarantula should be kept constantly dry or too hot. They can be kept at room temperature in most households, provided it stays around 70-73*. Ideally you’d be shooting for 78-80 Degrees, in which case they will metabolize and grow quicker. If you need to pump the temperatures up a little bit, you can use a Clamp Lamppointed at one side of the cage to raise the ambient temperature.

Heat pads can also be used, but should only be mounted to the side of a glass enclosure, as tarantulas burrow to escape heat, so an undertank heater would result in a cooked spider.

As adults, their substrate can be kept bone dry as long as a water bowl is provided. They should also be given higher humidity before they molt. This is achieved by lightly spraying the enclosure, and by adding wet Sphagnum Moss.

Feeding

Tarantulas in general have a low metabolism. They aren’t running around the cage all day, or doing much of anything, to be honest. As a result, they don’t eat a whole lot. Most spiders will eat one appropriately sized insect a week. Spiderlings can be offered Flightless fruit flies if they are too small to tackle live crickets. They can also be given a freshly killed small cricket, as they can be scavengers for their few months of life. It is not uncommon for your tarantula to skip a meal, or even go for a prolonged period of fasting. As long as they maintain a plump abdomen, they are perfectly fine. The most frequent reason that a spider refuses a meal is that is going through premolt, that is, it is preparing to shed its skin. Signs of premolt would be the tarantula kicking all of its uriticating hairs off, leaving a light colored bald spot that eventually turns black. After the process is complete, you will find a shed skin that looks just like your spider! They will also begin to regenerate legs during this time if any are lost.  Leg regeneration can take several molts and can be a complicated process for your tarantula, so while they can regrow their legs, it’s best that they not lose them in the first place.

Sexing

Sexing tarantulas is usually difficult until they mature. Once mature, males will possess “hooks” on their pedipalps, which are used for breeding. Once males “hook out”, they will only live for another year or two. Females will not get these hooks, and will instead live for around 20 years after maturing. This obviously makes females more desirable to acquire, however it is near impossible to tell until they are mature.  You can also sex tarantulas by examining their molts closely, but as this can be difficult without the right tools to see the right parts in a tiny spiderling molt, to be truly accurate it is best left to the dedicated tarantula enthusiast.

Conclusion

Overall, the Mexican Fire Leg Tarantula makes a perfect pet for beginning and advanced hobbyists alike. They are very hardy and easy to care for, but attain decent size and amazing color. They are not very quick, nor are they very bitey, but they do kick hairs and become nervous when disturbed, so they are better left as a “look-but-don’t-touch” pet. They can be kept in a simplistic setup, or in an elaborate vivarium. Either way, they will thrive as long as a  few basic needs are met. If you are looking for a colorful tarantula that is easy to deal with and maintain, stop looking and purchase a Mexican Fire Leg Tarantula!

 

What to Expect When You’re Expecting: Baby Bearded Dragon Care – August 2013

By Erin Lane
All Photos by Author

What to Expect

In the last few issues of the Retile Times we have looked at the various steps involved in breeding bearded dragon lizards. From mommy care to egg incubation, we have discussed tips of the trade that have hopefully helped you in your own current breeding endeavors.  In this last installment, we will cover the basics of baby care, from what to do when they first hatch, how to house them, and what, when, and how much they eat.

Breaking out

As you approach the end of incubation, it can be hard to know just when the eggs are going to hatch.  There are a few signs that can tell you when hatching is immanent, but there is often little way of knowing exactly when it will take place.  Bearded eggs incubated in the low to mid 80’s F will typically hatch between 60 and 75 days after being laid.  I usually start checking the incubator once a day or every other day as they approach the 2 month mark.

As the eggs get closer to hatching, you may notice that they begin to dimple.  This will also happen if there is not enough moisture in your egg substrate.  However, if you know that it is moist enough, and you notice dimples, then it may mean that your eggs are about to hatch.  The same is true for condensation on the eggs.  Although this often indicates too much moisture, this can be a sign that you will have some new hatchlings in the next day.

Newly hatched bearded dragon

Hatchlings will typically be worn out from the hatching process, and may not seem responsive at first.  While beardies are hardy, remember that these are neonates.  Leave them alone while they are hatching, and do not attempt to ‘help’ them out of the egg.  Even after they have emerged from the shell they will typically appear lethargic.  Leave them alone for 24-48 hours.  It is probably best to leave them in the warm humid egg box inside of the incubator for a while until they have recovered from hatching.  Anecdotally, the movement from the new hatchlings may help stimulate clutchmates to hatch as well.

New digs

Once your new hatchlings have had a chance to rest a while, you can move them to a more permanent enclosure.  While a baby dragon can more or less be set up as an adult, there are a few tricks that make the transition a little easier.  I have found that babies tend to become dehydrated more easily than adults.  It is important not only to soak or spray them daily, but I also like to provide them with a cage substrate that helps increase humidity.  Pulverized coconut products, such as Exo Terra Plantation Soil, or Zoo Med Eco Earth work well.  I prefer the bricks, as they are easy to store and you can buy them in a three pack.  When working with any moist substrate make sure that you don’t add too much water.  You don’t want the cage floor to be boggy, just slightly moist.  These substrates also seem to hold up better to frequent misting, and can be swallowed without a significant chance of impaction.  Babies can also be kept on sani-chips, though I usually wait until they are a few weeks old before I do.

New hatchlings will often be lethargic after first hatching.  Best practice is to leave them in the egg box in the incubator for a couple of days.

Just like adults, baby dragons appreciate something to climb on.  A sturdy piece of wood, diagonally placed piece of cork flat, or a basking platform are an important addition to the cage.

Keep in mind that crickets like to hide in nooks and crannies in pieces of wood, and even underneath flat cage furniture—the last thing you want is an army of crickets hiding in your baby cage. Look for pieces that don’t have cracks or gaps, or use a basking platform or rock that will make it harder for them to hide under.

The size of the enclosure should be dependent on the number of babies you have.  I have found that smaller clutches (10-15) can be kept all together in a 20 gallon long tank until they are 4-6 weeks old.  A larger clutch should be divided into 2 or more smaller groups to ensure that they all have access to food and a good basking spot.  Keep an eye out for babies that look smaller than the rest, seem weak or tired often, or have tail and toe nips.  These can be signs that there are too many dragons in the enclosure, and that some are not getting what they need.

Light the way

Good lighting is extremely important to new babies.  The lighting scheme should be similar to what you have for your adult dragons, keeping in mind that a smaller tank heats up faster than a larger one.  Be careful to not over-do it on the heat.  Before you set up your babies, make sure that your lighting is right, and that you have temped out the cage.  You still want nice hot basking spots like you do for adults (around 110 F), but you also need to keep a good temperature gradient.  The cool side should be no hotter than the low 80s F, preferably a little cooler.  To keep an eye on temperature, have a thermometer in the cage at all times.  I prefer one with a digital probe that I can move from one side to the other relatively easily.  A temp gunis also useful, and has the benefit of being fun to use.

A 10.0 UVB florescent bulb, such as the Zoo Med brand, is the best way to provide UVB to your hatchling bearded dragons.  If you decide to go for the newer and sleeker Zoo Med T5 high output bulbs, a 5.0 will be sufficient.  I have in the past avoided compact florescent bulbs for baby beardies as you need multiple bulbs to run the length of the cage.  However, if they are placed horizontally, and you use a few, these will also work.  Mercury vapor bulbs are another option that provide both heat and UVB.  The Zoo Med Powersun is an excellent product that I have used for both adult and baby dragons alike.  Regardless of which lighting option you choose, be sure to purchase a higher end brand—when it comes to UV, not all bulbs are created equal.

It is also important to remember that UV bulbs may still be putting out visible light as they age, but the amount of UVB will decrease over time.  A UV radiometer is a great tool to have when you keep reptiles, and it can allow you to monitor the UV output of your bulbs.  However, they are expensive, and may not make sense if you only have a few adults, and babies once a year.  In that case, it is best to replace your bulbs every 6-12 months.  Unless you have a set of bulbs you only use for baby dragons once a year, it is probably best to get a new set every season.  In the end, having healthier baby dragons will outweigh the expense of new bulbs.

Baby dragons should be kept on substrate that hold humidity.

When and how

Neonate reptiles will often take a few days to a week to ‘discover’ their appetite.  They have some nutrients left in their system from their yolk just prior to hatching, and will generally show little interest in food.  Don’t be alarmed if it takes a few days for them to start chasing crickets.  Offer a few small prey items a few days after hatching.  If they don’t go after it, try again the next day, being sure to remove the uneaten insects.  Keep this up until they begin to go after the prey item.  From then on, carefully add feeders, a small quantity at a time, until they have eaten their fill, or when they stop chasing them.  Babies are best fed small quantities of insects throughout the day.  If you can manage to feed them 2-3 times a day, they will be in better condition for it.

Dark leafy greens can be offered every other day, in addition to daily insects. This will help keep your babies better hydrated, and supply additional nutrients.  However, greens are not enough to keep a young dragon from drying out.  Make sure to mist the babies and enclosure a couple times a day.  An alternative is to soak the babies every day or every other day in shallow luke-warm water in addition to occasional misting.  This way they will be sure to get enough water without making the cage too wet.

As mentioned earlier, be careful that feeder insects are not hiding in the cage.  For this reason, I only keep one climbing apparatus, and nothing else, in the enclosure. There is nothing more heartbreaking than finding a baby dragon that has been mutilated, or even killed, by crickets.

On the menu

There are unfortunately few good feeder insects available for baby dragons in the US.  While adults can eat just about anything, babies are limited due to their size.  Crickets have their downside (e.g., low calcium to phosphorus ratio, predation on babies), but they are still the most widely available feeder insect on the market for baby beardies.  Unlike mealworms that can lead to impaction in small animals, crickets are more or less easily digestible and can be purchased in a number of sizes.  Just remember that a varied diet is best, and that gutloading and dusting with vitamins and calcium is key.

Put only as many crickets into the enclosure as can be consumed in a short period of time.  Feeder insects can wreak havoc on baby beardies if left in the cage unattended.

Many people erroneously believe that ‘pinhead’ crickets are the most appropriate feeder for neonate dragons, not realizing that 1) pinheads are as small as they sound, and 2) babies will have a hard time catching something that tiny.  Go for ‘small’ crickets, which will usually run between ¼” and ½” in size.  In most cases, babies will be ready for ‘medium’ crickets in 3-4 weeks.

Roaches have become increasingly popular feeders in the past year, and are more readily available now than ever.  B. dubia (a.k.a. dubia roaches) have been touted as the new big feeder.  They don’t jump, climb glass, prey on baby reptiles, or smell bad, making them ideal to keep and feed off.  They are also more nutritious than crickets, and induce as much excitement (if not more) as crickets in baby beardies.

Worms (wax, super, and meal) can be used as a significant part of an adult bearded dragon diet, but are not preferred for hatchlings.  Waxworms make a good treat as they are loaded in fat and soft bodied.  However, mealworms and even small superworms tend to cause issues with impaction.  I have experimented over the years with feeding mealworms and even cut up superworms to young dragons with mixed results.  While small amounts of either under ideal conditions (e.g. hot basking spot, good hydration) are usually okay, youngsters that over indulge will in the best case regurgitate, and in the worst die of impaction.  It is best not to chance it—steer clear of meal and superworms until your beardies are juveniles.

Hatchling next to eggs from the same clutch

Greens can include any that you would offer to an adult.  Small amounts of fruit are okay to mix in, but shouldn’t be a large part of the diet.  Although many greens contain oxalates, which can interfere with calcium absorption, providing a varied mix is more ideal than providing only one or none at all.  Stay clear of iceburg lettuce, as it can cause diarrhea when fed in large quantities.

Dietary supplements can also be given to babies as they would to adults, though you may increase the frequency.  While an adult dragon may only need to have every other meal dusted in calcium (calcium with D3 for animals housed indoors), babies should probably have every meal dusted.  Since they will often eat multiple times in one day, if you want to dust only the first meal, that is probably sufficient.  Too much of anything is, by definition, bad—and that includes calcium.  However, if you keep your babies well hydrated, it is probably fine to go a little heavy on the calcium when they are small.  Only use vitamin supplements once or twice a week.

In conclusion

Breeding bearded dragons can be a fun experience that will teach you more about your animal than you could have anticipated.  In the last few editions of The Reptile Times we have discussed how to prepare your female for breeding, care for her eggs, and successfully raise hatchlings.  Although it can take time and effort, it is hopefully worth it in the end when you find yourself with a healthy bunch of tiny dragons.  While baby care is similar to adult husbandry, it is important to keep in mind that they are still fragile, dehydrate easily, and have a much quicker metabolism.  Regular misting and feedings, good light and heat, and enough room are essential to raising up healthy babies.  Hopefully your breeding endeavors are well on their way for the season, and that you have lots of little mouths ready to be fed.

Blaptica dubia: Equal Opportunity Feeder – July 2013

By Jonathan Rheins

Meet the Roach

As a whole, herpetoculturists are a resourceful bunch. For decades and decades we have studied, maintained, and bred a large number of diverse species in an artificial environment.  Over the years, fore-thinking herpers of all backgrounds have scratched their collective head and struggled with all of the “what-ifs” and “maybes” of our hobby.
In addition to creative solutions regarding lighting, heating, and housing needs, we have also made great strides in the realm of nutrition. Perhaps the most important being those of the constantly evolving list of tried and tested live feeder options.
Be they crickets, mealworms, mice, or rats, there are a growing number of feeders that have become mainstream staples for those wishing to keep reptiles and amphibians as pets.
However, other options exist for even the pickiest insectivore palate. Roaches.  Yes, the scurrying, invincible, invertebrate denizens of our nightmares can actually provide an incredibly healthy and balanced diet for cold-blooded creatures of all shapes and sizes.

 It should come as no surprise to many readers, but not all roach species are our friends.  Pest species can certainly wreck havoc on the pantry and nerves of even the most liberal naturalist.  That said, even the venerable commercial cricket can just as easily outwit our human coordination and “make a run for it.”

Fortunately for us, most of the commercially available roach species are of tropical origin and simply cannot thrive in the relatively cool and dry conditions of many regions of the United States.  In the case of accidental escape, these roaches will most likely die off rather than initiate a plague of any sort.
The commercial breeding of roaches for herpeteculture use is quite new to many American keepers.  However, these misunderstood arthropods have long been commonplace feeders in European collections and in those of zoological institutions and professional breeders throughout the world.
The consensus among many reptile keepers and breeders who are in the know is that of all the roaches out there, Blaptica dubia are as close to perfect as a roach species can be.  They are easy to deal with, nutritionally sound, and absolutely irresistible to every herp they meet.

Dubia Details

Blaptica dubia is a medium sized, South American roach species belonging to the family Blaberidae.  All genera within this family are ovoviviparous.  In cases of ovoviviparity, fertilized eggsacs known as oothicas are carried internally by the female roach until the eggs are fully developed.  Hatching takes place within the abdomen of the female, and at that time baby roaches (nymphs) emerge as fully developed miniature versions of the adults.
Within the United States, common names for B. dubia include Orange-spotted roach, Guyana-spotted roach, and most commonly, theDubia roach.  Latinized scientific names are always the most reliable system for describing any animal species. Furthermore, the use of Latin names ensures that the roaches being purchased, bred, or sold are identified in a consistent and accurate manner.
Dubia roaches are approximately 1/8 inch long at birth and measure just shy of 2 inches in length at maturity.  Adult dubia are sexually dimorphic, with males and females being easy to pick apart at a glance.  Males posses large wings that extend the length of the abdomen, while females have only small wing stubs, barely covering the “shoulder” region.
Flight among dubia roaches is very rare.  Despite being capable of hovering for short periods, this is a behavior that most keepers will never witness nor need to be overly concerned about.  Furthermore, B. dubia are poor climbers, and are nearly incapable of climbing smooth surfaces such as glass, acrylic, and plastic.
Breeding roaches for use as feeders is not a difficult endeavor, and maintaining multiple colonies is a worthwhile consideration if many herps are being maintained, or if feeder availability is locally seasonal or absent.  The details of breeding dubia roaches are beyond the scope of this article, but can be easily researched and implemented by the interested hobbyist.

Roach Motels

As with any live feeder, having a secure container to house them in until needed is highly recommended for keeping dubia roaches.  The use of a holding container allows for more roaches to be purchased at once, saving on feeder runs and shipping.  Furthermore, small roaches or nymphs can be purchased and raised up until they are the perfect size for being fed off.
While not strictly necessary, the use of a tight-fitting and well-ventilated lid is highly recommended.  There are many acceptable containers for temporarily housing dubia roaches including small glass terrariumsplastic faunarium critter keepers, and deli cups.

Substrates are not needed in dubia habitats, and using them may actually make cleaning and collection of tiny roaches more difficult. Dubia roaches have very little odor, and if attention is paid to cleanliness, ventilation, and removal of uneaten foods, there should be minimal smell associated with the roach container.
Hiding and climbing structures should be added such as cardboard toilet paper tubes, egg crates, or even vertically stacked cardboard pieces.   These will provide increased standing room for larger groups of roaches by allowing them to spread out and not smother each other.  Roaches that feel hidden and secure will thrive and grow faster than those under constant stress.
B. dubia is capable of surviving at temperatures between 70 and 95 degrees Fahrenheit, making them quite tough and adaptable.  Roaches kept at room temperature will survive and fare well, but as temperatures increase, more rapid growth will become evident.
The dubia holding container should be kept in a warm room in the home, or heated artificially if this can be done safely.  If external heat sources such as heat pads or heat cable are used, a high quality thermometer and appropriate temperature control device are recommended.
Blaptica Buffet

Feeder insects are only as healthy and wholesome as the foods they eat themselves.  Offering hungry, malnourished feeders to herps is akin to a human eating a hamburger that is nothing but an empty bun!  What’s on the inside is quite important in ensuring that a meal (roach, hamburger, or otherwise) is nutritionally well rounded.
The process of providing water and nutritious foods to future prey items is known as gutloading.  Feeders that have been gutloaded are many times more nutritious than “empty” feeders, and careful planning can allow for specific nutrients to be added or removed from the diet as needed.

There is more to gutloading roaches than just keeping them alive.

Just as with any other living creatures, they should never be deprived of food and water for any period of time.

B. dubia are opportunistic scavengers and in the wild they feed constantly on nearly any plant or animal matter they come across.

Fortunately, replicating such a diet for our feeder roaches is exceptionally simple.

After all, roaches are one of nature’s most devoted recyclers, and not very picky about their menu.  A staple diet of commercial insect gutloads such as Repashy Bug BurgerNature Zone Total Bites, or Fluker’s Orange Cubes work very well.  Supplement the diet with fresh fruits and vegetables as well as unsweetened cereals and grains.

Being the poor climbers that they are, food for dubia roaches should not be offered in feed dishes that are more than a few centimeters in height.  Rather, use a piece of paper, deli lid, or shallow dish to offer food.  Avoid placing food directly on the floor of the container in the interest of cleanliness and mold prevention.
Moisture should be provided at all times in the form of fresh produce and the use of a water replacement crystal/gel such as Nature Zone Water Bites.  These gels provide water and increase container humidity without the risk of roach drowning.
Feeding Time

Handling dubia roaches and offering them as feeders is not as complicated as one may expect.   While dubia roaches can run, they cannot jump or fly, and like mealworms, they cannot escape from smooth-sided feeding dishes.
Appropriately sized roaches can be easily shaken off of their egg crate and directly into a wide mouthed jar or even through a funnel. Appropriate powdered supplements can be added as per the traditional “shake-and-bake” method.
Feeding dishes with smooth, steep sides work very well for offering dubia roaches to mostreptile species.   Worm dishes designed specifically for use with live mealworms can also work quite well depending on the size and quantity of roaches being presented.  Some creativity and experimentation may be needed to get it just right for any given situation.
In glass enclosures, rack systems, or other roach proof reptile terrariums, dubia roaches may be dumped directly into the enclosure and allowed to picked off over time by the hungry resident.  Many reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and even fish will learn to eagerly snatch dubia roaches straight from the end of a pair of tongs!
Roaches may be slowed down before offering to herps that are less enthusiastic about hunting.  This can be accomplished by placing the roaches in the freezer 1 for-minute increments until the desired level of sluggishness has been achieved.  Responsibility and good judgment are musts for anyone wishing to chill their roaches.
Dubia roaches are less likely to cause unexpected harm to terrarium residents than some other feeder insects.  This is not to say that dozens of excess roaches will not cause stress or possible injury to an innocent leopard gecko.  It is however worth mentioning that a few uneaten roaches are not likely to bother most reptile pets.  Care should be taken however to avoid creating roach breeding conditions within a large, complicated terrarium.
Hit or Miss

There are many advantages to incorporating dubia roaches into the diet of captive reptiles and amphibians.  Dubia are a hardy roach species, they are unable to climb smooth surfaces, are nearly odorless, and are highly nutritious.  Furthermore, they are nearly irresistible to herps of all types.
However, despite this laundry list of qualifications, dubia are still a species of cockroach, and thus carry the heavy burden of a biased public.  After all, roaches can become household pests in many parts of the world.   It is understandable then for newcomers to question bringing roaches of any type into their homes.
Overall, and with basic attention to detail, dubia roaches really do make excellent feeders.  They are readily available, reasonably priced, and perhaps best of all, no one will be kept awake all night by their insistent chirps!
Dubia roaches pose little threat of escape or domestic infestation.  They are just as easy to handle and manage as any other invertebrate feeder, and properly kept dubia roaches will have no objectionable odor.
In Closing
Dubia roaches are rapidly encroaching on the fringe of what dictates a “normal feeder.”  While they are new to the scene, and unfamiliar to many, they hold a tremendous amount of promise as an easy, readily available food source for animals of all sorts.
Herps love them, as do tarantulas, scorpions, and fish.  Even picky eaters will jump upon the opportunity to have their dubia fill.  Feeder roaches may not be for every keeper or every herp.  But given the proper circumstances, dubia roaches could easily prove to be among the most perfect feeders.

Keeping Androctonus sp. in Captivity – July 2013

By Anthony Neubauer

Androctonus is the genus that contains the commonly called Fat Tail Scorpions. As the name suggests, these scorpions have an enlarged tail that allows them to possess more of their already toxic venom. They are recognized as some of the world’s most dangerous scorpions, and this should be kept in mind when choosing housing and while performing cage maintenance. The two most commonly available species in the U.S. hobby are the Yellow Fat Tail, Androctonus australis, and the Black Fat Tail, Androctonus bicolor. The care for each one is nearly identical as they are both naturally found throughout Africa and the Middle East.

Scorpions naturally have a slow metabolism, as they spend much of their time in burrows and under rocks. Because of this, they don’t require too large of an enclosure. However, they love to burrow and rearrange their cage, so one that allows burrowing is preferred. A cage size similar to a 5-10 gallon tank will be plenty large enough. The 12x12x12 glass reptile tanks offered by Exo Terra and Zoo Med make perfect and secure environments for these scorpions, as a lock can be purchased for added security. Since they are a desert dwelling species, a substrate that is dry and does not retain humidity is a must. I personally use a half-and-half mix of Zoo Med ReptiSand and Excavator clay. This allows your scorpions to dig and burrow as they would in the wild. Sand can also be used by itself, though you will want to offer more places to hide, such as flat rocks and wood. As for temperature, 75-80 degrees Fahrenheit is ideal. This can be achieved by placing a low wattage heat lamp on top, or a heat pad stuck to the side.  No special lighting is required as scorpions are nocturnal. They should be offered one or two appropriately sized crickets or roaches per week. A small water bowl can be offered, or the cage can be sprayed very lightly once or twice a month. They don’t require a lot of water because they get most of it from their food.

All in all, they are an easy-to-keep pet that doesn’t require daily care. If provided with a red nightlight, they can be seen throughout the night digging and rearranging their decor. However, they are a highly venomous animal that should be treated with respect. Their toxicity matched with their defensive personalities makes them a species that should only be kept by the more advanced and responsible hobbyist. Long tongs or hemostats should be purchased for performing maintenance, and under no circumstance should they be handled. If you’ve owned a lot of other scorpions and are ready to take it to the next level, then the Androctonus genus may be a good addition to your collection.

Caring for Varanus acanthurus, the Ackies Monitor – June 2013

By Max Weissman

Varanus acanthurus is a species of monitor lizard found widely throughout most of Australia. Commonly referred to as Ackie Monitors or Spiny Tailed Monitors, they are found in arid regions or scrubland environments throughout Western Australia, Northern Territory, and parts of Queensland. They live near rocky outcroppings, and when frightened they retreat into small crevices of the rock. They will fill their bodies with air to wedge into the rocks and fold their hard, spiny tails in front of the rock face to discourage predators from trying to pull them out. They live in humid burrows that they dig deep into the ground to escape the midday heat and also to control their hydration and temperature levels. Ackie Monitors are a popular pet monitor species to own because they are inquisitive, active, and have great colors and patterns, and relatively small adult size.

Ackie Monitors grow to reach an average length of 24 – 28 inches, with males usually having a thicker, heavier set head and neck than the females.  Ackie Monitors, like most monitors, can live a long time with an average life span of 15 to 20 years if properly housed and maintained.

When housing any Ackie Monitor keep in mind they actively hunt, explore, bask, and burrow. With this in mind I would recommend a 48” x 24” x 24” or larger glass terrarium from Creative Habitat, which we sell online and in our stores, or you can make a custom enclosure. It is best to give them a tall cage to give them a deep substrate to burrow into. Remember, if you ever question the size of your cage, bigger is always better with monitor species. Also, with cages that have screen lids you can add a cover made of acrylic, foil or a towel to help maintain humidity levels in the cage. However,  if you keep at least 10 to 12 inches of moist substrate in the cage, and an appropriate size water bowl, humidity levels on the top level can dip very low as Ackie Monitors will retreat into their burrows to control hydration and shedding.

Happily peeking out of a burrow! 

Since Ackie Monitors come from Australia, they should be provided with a basking zone surface temperature (which is best measured with a temp gun) of around 130 degrees Fahrenheit or hotter, while the air temperature measured by a probe thermometer is around 90 degrees Fahrenheit. You must maintain the cooler side’s air temperature at no lower than 70 degrees Fahrenheit and no warmer than 80 degrees Fahrenheit for your ackies to have optimal temperatures for thermoregulation.

This is critical since all reptiles are ectothermic and need to regulate their body temperatures by the temperatures of their environment. The best way to do this is by giving them as many areas of different temperatures as possible. Also, while some breeders have successfully kept and breed Ackie Monitors without UVB lighting, I highly recommend you use UVB lighting with your own monitors, since Ackie Monitors are basking lizards and in the wild they are exposed to UVB. Using a Mercury Vapor Bulb provides the animal with both UVB and heat all in one bulb. Deep Dome light fixtures are the best way to house your bulbs because they do not protrude out of the bottom of your fixture. Do not leave any visible light on at night as this can stress your animal; I recommend that you keep them on a 12-hour cycle (12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness). This can be accomplished simply by turning the light on in the morning and turning it of at night, or by a use of a timer. With this being said, if you are an experienced monitor owner or feel comfortable in doing such you can try a more natural approach with cycling the lights. This means going down to as little as 8 hours a day through the winter months, as long as you maintain the proper temperatures, and as much as 14 hours a day in the summer months, again making sure you are constantly reading and maintaining the temperatures within an acceptable range. If the daylight heat bulb you are using does not reaching the optimal temperatures you can add ceramic heat emitters. The ceramic heat emitters do not produce any light but put off a good deal of heat. Lamp stands can also be a good way to help keep temperatures at a constant by keeping the light at just the right height.

Ackie Monitors love to burrow and need a substrate to hold humidity and the shape of the burrows.  Compressed coconut substrate, when lightly packed in the cage, holds its shape and humidity nicely. And, if mixed with clay based substrates such as Zoo Med’s Excavator substrate makes a great combo at a ratio of 1 part excavator to 3 parts coconut substrate. Most coconut, cypress, and sterile plantation soils are all highly recommended.  They make a great mix when added in with vermiculite and play sand in a ratio of 1 part vermiculite : 1 part play sand : 3 parts soil. Making the substrate layer thick and moist will aid in keeping your monitor hydrated and shedding properly. There are a variety of ways to provide hiding spots, which include cork bark stacks, half logsflat pieces of wood, thick layers of bedding and moss,caves, and lots of cover in the form of fake plants. A monitor’s need to hide and stay warm can be duly accomplished in the form of providing a stack of cork bark or wood underneath the basking light, with the highest level being a few inches away and forming the hottest spot in the cage, with the lower levels being significantly cooler. This will allow your Ackie Monitor to thermoregulate its temperature and still feel secure. The key to success in a monitor’s cage is to offer the lizard as many choices as possible. The more options the monitor has to utilize for thermoregulating, the better it will do.

One of the author’s ackies enjoying some natural sunlight! 

An effective way to keep an Ackie Monitor hydrated is to keep a water bowl large enough for the monitor to soak in within the cage, so that if it wants to climb in, it can. They tend to like the surface and air to be dry and their burrows to be moist. A good way to keep burrows moist is to add water into them when the animal is out and about and not in the burrow. Also misting the cage once or twice a day will help keep the humidity levels up and aid in proper shedding and hydration.

Ackie Monitors in captivity have been known to take a wide range of prey items, including but not limited to: micecrickets, hissing cockroaches, dubia roaches,mealworms, Zoo Med’s canned food diets, snails, eggs (chicken and quail), and shrimp. It should be noted that just because a monitor can eat something, that does not mean that it is a suitable food. While a wide variety of food will be accepted, some foods are more readily eaten than others and some are far more appropriate as food items than others. While these monitors will eat dog and cat food, I do not recommend it as a part of the diet. Ideally, a diet consisting almost entirely of whole prey items with a small portion consisting of the raw turkey and egg diet, which was pioneered by the San Diego Zoo, is best.

Suitable whole prey items include hissing cockroaches, dubia roaches, lobster roaches; mice (avoid unweaned rodents as they are high in fat and low in calcium and other nutrients). All food items, with the exception of rodents, should be dusted with a high quality calcium and/or vitamin powder, such as Sticky Tongue Farms MinerAll Indoor Formula or Repashy’s Calcium Plus.Young monitors can be kept mainly on crickets, mealworms, and small roaches, while adult monitors can be fed the entire range of possible food items. Rodents should be fed in moderation, leaning on the side of fewer rodents than insects. Captive monitors rarely, if ever, get the same kind of exercise wild monitors do, and care should be taken to ensure that an adult monitor does not become obese.

Some of the author’s baby Ackies basking

In addition to being fascinating and hardy captives, Ackie Monitors are relatively easy to handle. With calm, confident handling on a regular (but not necessarily frequent) basis, these monitors can learn to tolerate and even enjoy human interaction. Care must be given to allow the monitor plenty of time to acclimate before any attempts at developing an owner-monitor bond are made. Once the monitor shows a healthy appetite and eats readily, and does so regularly, start handling it for just a few minutes at a time daily. If the monitor continues to eat and does not spend the time immediately after handling buried beneath the substrate, avoiding you at all costs, increase the handling time slowly but surely, until the monitor does not mind being out for extended periods of time. Always be sure to read your monitor’s behavior: If it hides and does not move for days on end after being handled, decrease handling time and frequency. With patience, eventually these monitors can and will become tame.