Entomological Etymology – Correction

ENTOMOLOGICAL ETYMOLOGY

CORRECTION
By Kevin Scott

In the last issue of The Reptile Times, the spiders belonging to the genus Poecilotheria were erroneously referred to as ornamental baboon spiders. Baboon spiders belong to Harpactirinae, a subfamily of Theraphosidae(tarantulas) from Africa. This subfamily was first set up by Reginald Pocock in 1897 to include species in the genera Ceratogyrus and Pterinochilus [1].  The accepted common name for the Poecilotheria genus is simply “ornamental spiders,” excluding the word ‘baboon.’ The scientific names used in the last issue were correct as of the date published.correction

NOMENCLATURE

In the world of invertebrates, it is particularly important to use correct nomenclature in order to avoid uncertainty with respect to a species’ identity. Stanley and Marguerite Schultz claim that the nomenclature of tarantulas “can euphemistically be described as confused,” in their book The Tarantula Keeper’s Guide. Much of the confusion stems from misidentification during importation as well as the misuse and misspelling of names. I generally prefer to use the scientific names of spiders to avoid confusion, but even so, there can be some uncertainty in terms of the most common revision of classification.

COMMON DESCRIPTORS

One problem with common names is that they are often descriptive, and could in principle apply to several species. For example, Nhandu coloratovillosum is commonly referred to as the Brazilian black and white tarantula. Acanthoscurria geniculata is also a tarantula from Brazil that has black and white coloration, but the common name for this one is Brazilian giant white knee. Furthermore, although these two species are far from identical in appearance, to someone with little or no knowledge about tarantulas, they can appear similar to one another, especially as spiderlings.FINAL NOTES

In all fields of science, nothing is 100% exact, and taxonomy is good example of this [2]. Scientists often argue about the classification about species and whole genera are taken apart and reassembled based on new information all the time. Advances in genetic analysis allow us to take a closer look at the relationship between life forms, often with surprising results. Because we live in a world where things are constantly changing, where ranges of inhabitance overlap, and where interspecies breeding can occur, the field of taxonomy will probably continue to change indefinitely. In addition, even within a species differences in physiology can be seen. With a conscious effort to use correct nomenclature we can all remove a portion of the error, at least where science and hobby overlap.

[1] For more information on baboon spider taxonomy and descriptions, see www.BaboonSpiders.de

[2] For more information see Robson, G. C. (1928). The Species Problem: an Introduction to the Study of Evolutionary Divergence in Natural Populations. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.

Poecilotheria in the Vivarium

Poecilotheria in the vivarium

By Kevin Scott

WARNING: The species of Poecilotheria described here are spiders that can be fast, aggressive and extremely dangerous to humans. They should NOT be handled.

VIVARIUM ORNAMENTS

Over the last decade or so there has been an explosion in vivarium popularity. Animals like arrow frogs, mantellas, day geckos and other small diurnal herps are a natural choice for such display cages because of their distinctive coloration and visibility during the day. Tarantulas and bird spiders have been largely neglected in this department, and not without reason. Most spiders are secretive, and will either bury themselves or spin thick, opaque webs, making it difficult to observe them. Either way this makes them difficult to be seen. In addition, most tarantulas will eat almost anything else that they are housed with.

fringed ornamental

The Fringed Ornamental Baboon Spider (Poecilotheria ornata)

Species of the genus Poecilotheria (Ornamental Baboon Spiders), however, can often be seen sprawled on pieces of wood or cork bark. While they cannot be housed with other animals (although they have been successfully kept communally), Poecilotheria species can make an unusual and decorative addition to the tropical vivarium.

CARE

Ornamental Baboon Spiders are from tropical South East Asia (India, Sri Lanka) and benefit from moderate to high humidity (50-75%), although they can go for extended dry periods if needed. Light daily misting is recommended if your vivarium is not humid enough from moss and/or plants that are established within it. As with humidity, heating situations can vary widely depending on the style and orientation of your vivarium, but a thermogradient with the warm side reaching temperatures of 78-80 degrees is recommended. Compact fluorescent lighting commonly used for vivaria usually emit sufficient heat for Ornamentals (although they normally shy away from bright light) but if this is not enough, an under-tank heater can be used as asecondary heat source.

vivarium

A simplistic arboreal vivarium with a hollow piece of grapewood is ideal for any of these species.

Again, each vivarium is different and care should be taken with tropical plants when selecting a spot for a heat source.

Being arboreal (tree-dwelling) animals, Poecilotheria species prefer vertically oriented vivaria. Adequate ventilation should be provided. Although they are often seen ‘out and about,’ hide spots are necessary. Cork hollows are ideal for this, and will allow your spider to build a web to retreat to, should it want to. Live plants with broad leaves, like pothos ivy, smaller philodendron and bromeliads, also provide excellent cover in this type of environment. A small water dish with a sponge or cotton balls should be offered, for your spider to stay hydrated.

indian ornamental

The Indian Ornamental (Poecilotheria regalis)

FEEDING

All Poecilotheria species can feed solely upon crickets. Spiderlings and adults alike can feed weekly, with the size of the food item ranging from small to large crickets, as is appropriate. Care should be taken to provide enough food if a communal vivarium is what you have in mind. Although Ornamentals have been successfully kept together (same species, same size only), they have also been known to cannibalize. If you set up a communal vivarium, it is essential that you provide enough food for your spiders. Several appropriately sized crickets should be fed to each spider weekly, with uneaten food items being removed from the cage with tweezers. Other food items including cockroaches, locusts, meal-, super-, and wax-worms can be fed as well, but in the vivarium these have a tendency to hide or dig if not captured immediately.

CLOSING COMMENTS

In closing, I would like to note that species of Poecilotheria are not the only spiders that do well in vivaria.Brachypelma species are another excellent addition to the tropical vivarium. These terrestrial counterparts are very hardy and less aggressive than the Ornamentals, and are readily available in the pet trade. Brightly colored and not as reclusive as some other tarantulas, these fascinating animals are a subtler main feature than brightly colored frogs or geckos, but if you take the time to set up and care for these eight-legged wonders I think that you will be pleasantly surprised.